Nursing is a profession within the health care sector focused on the care of individuals, families, and communities so they may attain, maintain, or recover optimal health and quality of life. Nurses may be differentiated from other health care providers by their approach to patient care, training, and scope of practice. Nurses practice in many specialties with differing levels of prescription authority. Many nurses provide care within the ordering scope of physicians, and this traditional role has shaped the public image of nurses as care providers. However, nurse practitioners are permitted by most jurisdictions to practice independently in a variety of settings. Since the postwar period, nurse education has undergone a process of diversification towards advanced and specialized credentials, and many of the traditional regulations and provider roles are changing.
Nurses develop a plan of care, working collaboratively with physicians, therapists, the patient, the patient’s family, and other team members that focuses on treating illness to improve quality of life. In the United Kingdom and the United States, advanced practice nurses, such as clinical nurse specialists and nurse practitioners, diagnose health problems and prescribe medications and other therapies, depending on individual state regulations. Nurses may help coordinate the patient care performed by other members of a multidisciplinary health care team such as therapists, medical practitioners, and dietitians. Nurses provide care both interdependently, for example, with physicians, and independently as nursing professionals.
DIPLOMA IN PHAR
Pharmacy or Pharmacology is one of the main disciplines under Biomedical Science and the pharmaceutical industry. It is the profession responsible for the preparation,dispensing and appropriate use of medication and which provides services to achieve optimal therapeutic outcomes. Pharmacy is a scientific profession requiring a high level of education and training.
Pharmacy degrees including Diploma in Pharmacy (Pharmacy Assistant level) are approved by the Nepal Pharmacy Council (NPC), to ensure that students have received appropriate education for their professional registration and subsequent development and careers.
Nepal Pharmacy Council has adopted NPC Guidelines for the Accreditation of Pharmacy Degree Programmes in 2003 and NPC Norms for Establishment of New Pharmacy Degree College for First Year (to start with) and Approval Process of the New College in 2004.
In addition NPC has adopted approval criteria and guidelines for 3 year Diploma Level (Pharmacy Assistant level) colleges in Nepal. There are 21 such colleges under the affiliation of Council for Technical Education and Vocational Training (CTEVT). The entry for this level is after the completion of 10 years of formal schooling.
Diploma in Pharmacy is a three year course after SEE. The students after passing the SEE securing a minimum of 45% result in aggregate and willing to seek their future career in the field of pharmacy profession can join the course.
The main objectives of this program are:
To prepare a supportive technical human resource for pharmaceutical industry, laboratories and capable manpower for quality control and drug control and rational use of drugs
To develop leadership quality in pharmacy professionals who can manage rational supply of pharmaceuticals and to promote rational use of drugs within the health care service and private sector.
Passed entrance examination organized by CTEVT.
Applicant should submit along with the following documents at the time of application:
SLC pass certificate or equivalent certificate
Citizenship certificate (for the name, parents name, age, date of birth and address verification purpose only).
Medical fitness certificate (at the time of admission)
Note:Student quota for different category of students as per the policy of Nepal Pharmacy Council and CTEVT.
Medium of Instruction
The medium of instruction will be in English and/or Nepali.
The diploma in Pharmacy program extends over three academic years. One academic year consists of maximum of 39 academic weeks and one academic week consists of maximum of 40 hrs.
Pattern of Attendance
Minimum of 80% attendance is required to appear in final examination.
The pass marks for theory and practical examinations are:
40% in theory examination
60% in practical examination
The following grading system will be adopted:
Pass division: Pass aggregate to below 60%.
Second division: 60% to below 65%.
First division: 65% to below 80%
Distinction: 80% or above.
The council for technical education and vocational training will award the certificate of “Diploma in Pharmacy” to the candidate who successfully completes the requirements as prescribed by the CTEVT.
Secured at least grade C in C. Mathematics, C. English and C.Science in School leaving Certificate (SLC) examination from recognized academic institution and an average GPA of at least 2.
BACHELOR OF PHARMACY
The Bachelor of Pharmacy degree is popularly known as B-Pharm in India. It is a four-year program with both annual and semester schemes available. To be eligible, one must pass with at least 50% marks in 10 + 2 (or an equivalent examination) with physics, chemistry, biology or biotechnology as one of the subjects. In some states, it is mandatory to give an additional pharmacy entrance examination to be eligible for the course, the entrance tests can be the state common entrance test or, the National Eligibility cum Entrance Test (Undergraduate)(NEET). D.Pharm (Diploma of Pharmacy) holders are eligible for admission into B.Pharm second year directly via a lateral entry in India. B.Pharm holders can directly join into the 4th year of Pharm.D (PG) course.
Colleges imparting pharmaceutical education (D.Pharm, B.Pharm, M.Pharm, Pharm D) must be approved by All Indian Council of Technical Education (AICTE) and the Pharmacy Council Of India (PCI).
For a student to be eligible for registration as a Pharmacist/ Clinical pharmacist in India, the college from which he or she graduated must be approved by the PCI. B.Pharm is often superseded by M.Pharm, Pharm D (PB) and PhD-level courses although the minimum qualification required for registration as a pharmacist is D.Pharm.
B Pharm holders can work in several fields such as being a pharmacist, patient counseling, doing further studies such as master’s degree, working in a university as a lecturer, or working as a drug information specialist.
Master of Pharmacy (MPharma) in India is offered as post graduate (graduate) course after completion of BPharma degree. The MPharma course is normally of two years duration. In some universities it is one-year research and one year theory examination, while some offers M Pharm by research completely leading to doctorate degree. The course focuses on specialisation in the field of pharmacy. The MPharma courses are offered by pharmacy colleges affiliated to unite leading to entry into the pharmacy profession. In 2004, the University of Newcastle introduced a two-year postgraduate MPharm coursework program, to provide an alternative means to gain qualification for registration to practice as a pharmacist for graduates with a bachelor’s degree in any science or medical science that includes the required prerequisites. The MPharm degree is not an advanced follow-up degree for pharmacists. Following the commencement of the MPharm program at the University of Newcastle, other universities across Australia also began offering MPharm coursework programs. At present, either the BPharm or MPharm degree is accepted for registration as a practicing pharmacist.